The board with all of the punch down terminals you show in the picture is suitable for telephone distribution only. It is designed to take an incoming dial tone and feed it to all of the outgoing wires (to each jack) in your home. However, you can't use this same 1-in/many-out principle for data transmission.
If you want to run a data network and have no plans for telephone, you would replace the telephone board with a data board i.e. PN# 47605-C5B (6-port Cat 5e module). This board has 6 sets of punchdowns, and 6 corresponding RJ45 ports (a 1-1 connection for each wire). You would then use ethernet cables to patch from each port in your router to each port on the board you wanted to activate.
For the scenario you show above, where you have a router plugged in at a wallplate and are feeding the signal back in to the Leviton enclosure, you will want to add an ethernet switch inside the box. Or move your existing router inside the box... ultimately you need either a router or switch patching directly to each port you want active.
I tried somthing different that what you proposed but I did not work. Since I did not have the end connectors I tried landing the cables on port 2 for the incoming signal from the Router and then jumpering between port 2 and 6 to connet to the cable whenre I wanted to end up. But this does not work. Can you tell me why? Do I need a crossover cable? See my configuration below.
Looking for anyone to comment.
In theory what you have done should work. However looking at your picture, you actually terminated the incoming router signal on the punchdown strip for port 1, not port 2. If the picture you provided represents exactly what you did, your fix may be as simple as switching the jumper from port 2 to port 1. (See below for a picture of the board numbering).
If that doesn't work, the next thing to look at is your patch cord. Are you using a factory made, Cat 5e or better cord?
Finally, what wiring did you use on your wall jacks- they should be punched down using the T568A wiring scheme in order to match the Leviton board.